1.1.1. Criminology and Restorative Justice:
UNIT I: Understanding Criminology:
  • Basic Concepts for Understanding Criminology
  • Evolution of Criminology
  • Criminologist Work
  • Understanding Crime and Criminal behaviour
UNIT II: Criminological Schools of Thought :
  • Classical School
  • Positivist Criminology: Biological Determination, Psychological Determinism and Sociological Determinism
  • Modern Criminology; Bio-criminology, Genetics
  • Criminal behaviour and Neurobiological factors
UNIT III: Theories of Criminal Behaviour:
  • Psychological Explanation of Criminality
  • Personality Theories
  • Strain and Cultural Theories
  • The Anomie
  • Cultural Deviance Theories: Social Disorganization, Differential Association and Cultural Conflict Theories
UNIT IV: Juvenile Justice:
  • Juvenile Delinquency
  • Evolution of Juvenile Justice System
  • Juvenile Justice in India
  • The Pretrial and Trial Stage of Juvenile Justice
  • Institutionalization and Alternatives
UNIT V: Restorative Justice
  • Meaning and Scope and Historical Account of Restorative Justice
  • The Philosophy and Aims of Criminal Sentencing
  • Principles and Values of Restorative Justice
  • Why Do We Need Restorative? Restorative Justice Models  
  • Introduction to Restorative Peacemaking Practices
1.1.2. Criminal Law: Legislative under pinnings
UNIT I: General Principles of Criminal Law
  • Nature, Scope of Law
  • Kinds of Laws
  • Sources of Law
  • Definition of Law
  • Principles of Natural Justice
  • Rule of Law
  • Due Process of Law
  • Concept and Definition of Crime
  • Elements of Crime
  • Joint Liability in Criminal Law
  • Stages of Crime
  • Inchoate offences
  • General Exceptions
  • Punishment
UNIT II: Specific Offences
  • Offences against Human Body:
    • Sexual Assault including Rape (2013 Amendment Act)
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • POCSO Act
    • Kidnap, Abduction
  • Offences against Property:
    • Theft
    • Extortion
    • Dacoity
    • Misappropriation of Property
    • Cheating
    • Forgery
    • Offence relating to Coins
    • Currency, Documents
UNIT III: Cyber Crimes 
  • Hacking
  • Cyber stalking
  • Cyber Bullying
  • Cyber Defamation
  • Cyber Pornography
  • Child Pornography
  • Cyber Terrorism
  • Data Theft and Data protection
  • Cyber cheating
Unit IV: Special Laws 
  • Drug offences including Drug trafficking, NDPS Act,
  • Offences relating to Money Laundering, (PMLA Act)
  • Economic Offences,
  • White Collar crimes.
  • Terrorism.
  • Corporate crimes,
  • Environment crimes
1.1.3. Criminal Justice Administration and Process:
Unit I: Police in Criminal Justice system:
  • Arrest
    • When Police may arrest without warrant
    • Distinction between Cognizable and Non-cognizable offences
    • Arrest of persons.
    • Rights of an accused
  • Process to compel production of things
    • Search and Seizure
    • Proclamation and attachment
  • Investigation
    • Preventive Action of the Police and Executive magistrates
    • Information to the Police and their Powers to Investigate
    • FIR and its Evidentiary value
    • Power of police to conduct investigation anywhere in India in a cognizable offence
    • Power of Magistrate to order for investigation
    • Procedure to conduct Investigation in cognizable offence
    • Procedure to conduct Investigation in Non Cognizable Offences
    • Powers given to police during Investigation
    • Police officers power to require attendance of witnesses an
    • Procedure to examine the witnesses
    • Procedure when Investigation cannot be completed within 24 hours
    • Doctrine of self-incrimination and Sec 162
    • Judicial Custody and Police Custody
    • Police Interrogation and misuse of the power by using third degree methods remedies suggested by law commission of India in its 113th report
    • Recording of Confessions and Statements by Magistrate
    • Police Diary or Case Diary, its evidentiary value in the trial
    • Final Report/ Charge sheet/ Police Report
    • Inquest
    • Bail and Bonds
Unit II: Prosecution and Criminal Courts:
  • Pre-Trial Procedure
    • Receiving and documenting F.I.R; recording of confession/ statement, Dying declaration
    • Judicial remand, police remand ; bail and anticipatory bail; issuance of directions to State Legal Services Authority (SLSA) for payment of  interim-compensation to Victims pending Final Report; issuance of Audio-video remand extension ; issuance of search/ arrest / transit warrants; issuance of hand cuffing orders in case of dangerous and desperate offenders .
  • Trial Procedure
    • COURT LANGUAGE in sub-ordinate courts and High Court
    • Taken on File- CC nos, PRC nos, SC nos, STC ( SUMMARY TRIAL CASE)
    • Commencement of Trial- issuance of summons, warrants, production from Prison to Court, Audio-video trial in cases of dangerous and desperate offenders
    • Speedy Trial procedure u/s 309 Cr PC, and in certain violent crimes against women and children
    • Role of Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) vis a vis CWC Child welfare committees
    • commencement of proceedings before Magistrate and issue of processes, supply of charge sheet copies to the accused
    • Framing of the Charge, continuity of Trial
    • Trial before a court of Sessions
    • Trial of Warrant cases by Magistrate
    • Summary Trials
    • Judgments, Appeals  and sanction of Victim compensation, 
    • Role of SLSA  Compounding compoundable cases
    • Interim applications, Writs, Quash applications , other Miscellaneous matters  filed in High Courts and interaction with Public Prosecutors, Govt. Pleaders for Home etc.
    • MACT  (MOTOR VEHICLES CLAIMS TRIBUNAL) and MEE SEVA or E- SEVA  for obtaining documents from Police to be filed before Tribunals for claiming damages
Unit III: Evidence and Its Admissibility 
  • Introduction,
  • Relevancy of Facts, Proof
  • Production and effect of evidence
  • Competency and compellability of witness
  • Examination of witness:
    • The source of Digital Evidence or Electronic Evidence,  
    • The characteristics of Digital or electronic evidence,  
    • The investigation, collection and examination of digital evidence,
    •  Admissibility of Electronic Evidence,
    • Presumptions Regarding Electronic Documents and forms under Evidence Act.

Unit IV: Correctional Instituitions
  • Statutes governing Prisons
  • Types of prisons        
  • Types of prisoners
  • Role of prisons in criminal justice system
  • Prisons and Human Rights
  • Women prisoners and custodial justice
  • Probation and courts, prisons and judicial activism, emerging trends in corrections, Krishna Iyer report, Mullah Committee report
  • Powers of the court regarding release of certain offenders
  • Release After Admonishing
  • Release on Probation
  • Offenses in which benefit of probation can and cannot be granted
  • Procedure when the offender breaches the conditions of Probation

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 Associate Professor
 NALSAR University of Law
  Ph : +9140 – 23498213

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Ms. K. Madhuri
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Ms. G. Usha Devi
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Mr. B. Vijay Kumar
Record Assistant
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Postal Address

NALSAR Proximate Education

Directorate of Distance Education
NALSAR University of Law
Justice City, Shameerpet, Medchal District,
Hyderabad - 500101, Telangana, India.
Ph : +9140 – 23498404;Fax: +91 40 23498403

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