1.1.1. Criminology and Penology:
UNIT I: Understanding Criminology:

Basic Concepts for Understanding Criminology, Evolution of Criminology, Criminologist Work ,Understanding Crime and Measures of Crime and Criminal behaviour .

UNIT II: Criminological Schools of Thought :

Crime and Human Nature, Classical School, Positivist Criminology: Biological Determination, Psychological Determinism and Sociological Determinism, Modern Criminology; Bio-criminology, Genetics and criminal behaviour and Neurobiological factors.

UNIT III: Theories of Criminal Behaviour:

Psychological Explanation of Criminality, Personality theories, Insanity, Strain and Cultural Theories, The Anomie, Cultural Deviance Theories: Social Disorganization, Differential Association and Cultural Conflict Theories.

UNIT IV: Penology:

Sentencing and Correction: Meaning and Scope of Penology , The Philosophy and Aims of Criminal Sentencing, Indeterminate Sentence, Sentencing, the Legal Context and Capital Punishment, Alternative Sentence, Administration of Prisons and Prison Culture , Human Rights of Inmates of jails.

UNIT V: Juvenile Justice

Juvenile Delinquency and Evolution of Juvenile Justice System, Juvenile Justice in India, Police, SJPU,SJPO and Child in Conflict with Law, Police Processing of the Juvenile Offender, The Pretrial and Trial Stage of Juvenile Justice, Institutionalization.

1.1.2. Criminal Law and Legislative under pinning:
UNIT I: General Principles of Criminal Law

Nature, Scope of Law, Kinds of Laws, Sources of Law,  Definition of Law,  Principles of Natural Justice, Rule of Law,  Due Process of Law, Ethics in Criminal Justice Administration Distinction between Criminal and Civil Liability,Human Rights Jurisprudence.

Concept and Definition of Crime, Elements of Crime, Joint Liability in Criminal Law, Stages of Crime, Inchoate offences, General Exceptions, Punishment.

UNIT II: Specific Offences

Offences against Human Body: Homicide, Sexual Assault including Rape (2013 Amendment Act), Child Sexual Abuse, POCSO Act, Kidnap, Abduction, Offences against Property:Theft, Extortion. Dacoity, Misappropriation of Property, Cheating, Forgery,Offence relating to Coins, Currency, Documents, Offences against State: Custodial Crime, Offences against Public tranquility : Unlawful Assembly, Rioting and Affray.

UNIT III: Cyber Crimes 

Hacking, Cyber stalking, Cyber Bullying, Cyber Defamation, Cyber Pornography, Child Pornography, Cyber Terrorism,Data Theft and Data protection,Cyber cheating

Unit IV: Special Laws 

Drug offences including Drug trafficking, NDPS Act, Offences relating to Money Laundering, (PMLA Act), Economic Offences, White Collar crimes, Terrorism.

UNIT V: Criminal Justice Reforms

Malimath Committee Recommendations, JS Verma Recommendations, Soli Sorbjee Committee, Krishna Commission, Law commission reports.

1.1.3. Criminal Justice administration and Process:
Unit I: Police in Criminal Justice system:

Arrest - When Police may arrest without warrant, Distinction between Cognizable and Non-cognizable offences, Arrest of persons, Rights of an accused.

Process to compel production of things - Search and Seizure, Proclamation and attachment

Investigation - Preventive Action of the Police and Executive magistrates, Information to the Police and their Powers to Investigate, FIR and its Evidentiary value, Power of police to conduct investigation anywhere in India in a cognizable offence, Power of Magistrate to order for investigation , Procedure to conduct Investigation in cognisable offence, Procedure to conduct Investigation in Non Cognisable Offences, Powers given to police during Investigation,  Police officers power to require attendance of witnesses, Procedure to examine the witnesses, Procedure when Investigation cannot be completed within 24 hours. Doctrine of self incrimination and Sec 162- Judicial Custody and Police Custody,Police Interrogation and misuse of the power by using third degree methods, remedies suggested by law commission of India in its 113th report, Recording of Confessions and Statements by Magistrate, Police Diary or Case Diary , its evidentiary value in the trial, Final Report/ Charge sheet/ Police Report , Inquest, Bail and Bonds.

Unit II: Prosecution and Criminal Courts:

Role of Prosecutors, Appointment of Public Prosecutors, Essential Components for an Effective and Efficient Prosecution System, Sanction for Prosecution and withdrawal from prosecution.

Trial procedure: Trial before the Court of sessions, Trial of warrant cases by Magistrate, Summons cases, Summary Trials, Plea Bargaining, Procedure for Appeal, Procedure for Revision, Procedure for Transfer of cases, Procedure for Withdrawal of cases.

Probation of offenders Act - Probation Officer and his duties

Unit III: Evidence and Its Admissibility 

Introduction, Relevancy of Facts, Proof, Production and effect of evidence, Competency and compellability of witness, Examination of witness, The source of Digital Evidence or Electronic Evidence,   The characteristics of Digital or electronic evidence,   The investigation, collection and examination of digital evidence,  Admissibility of  Electronic  Evidence, Presumptions Regarding Electronic Documents and forms under Evidence Act.

Unit IV: Statutes governing Prisons

Types of prisons, Types of prisoners, Role of prisons in criminal justice system, Prisons and Human Rights, Women prisoners and custodial justice,Probation and courts, prisons and judicial activism, emerging trends in corrections, Krishna Iyyer report, Mullah committee report.

Powers of the court regarding release of certain offenders - Release After Admonishing, Release on Probation, Offenses in which benefit of probation can and cannot be granted, Procedure when the offender breaches the conditions of Probation

Course Coordinator

 Associate Professor
 NALSAR University of Law
  Ph : +9140 – 23498213

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Ms. K. Madhuri
Assistant Registrar
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Ms. G. Usha Devi
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Mr. B. Vijay Kumar
Record Assistant
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Postal Address

NALSAR Proximate Education

Directorate of Distance Education
NALSAR University of Law
Justice City, Shameerpet, Medchal District,
Hyderabad - 500101, Telangana, India.
Ph : +9140 – 23498404;Fax: +91 40 23498403

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