2.3.7. Technology and Law: Emerging Areas
Unit – I Emerging and Contemporary Issues in cyber space
  • Data Protection- data privacy :emerging technologies
  • GDPR, HIPAA and proposed PDPA 2018
  • Quantum Computing
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • IOT (Internet of things)
  • Block chain technology
Unit II: Special Laws : Offences against human body
  • Drug offences including Drug trafficking, NDPS Act, PIT NDPS Act.
  • POCSO Act ( Child Sexual Abuse)
Unit – III : Economic offences
  • Offences relating to Money Laundering, (PMLA Act)
  • Corporate crimes, Bank Scams, Insider trading, Violation of RBI and SEBI
  • Environment crimes
Unit – IV : Anti-Terrorism Laws
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act - 1967
  • Unlawful Associations ( S 3 – 9)
  • Offence and penalties ( S 10-14)
  • Punishments and Offences ( S 15-23)
  • Definition of Terrorist act, harbouring, offences by companies.
  • Terrorism and the procedure to forfeiture the property of the accused (S 24-34).
    Investigating the offences – (S6-10)
Nature and Problems in Disputed Documents – Definition and Scope of Questioned or Disputed Documents – Classification of Disputed Documents – Influence of ink and paper on handwritings – Types of ink and paper – Procurement of Standard / Admitted / Specimen Writings – Handling and Marking of Documents – Preliminary Examination of Documents – Basic Principles of Handwriting Identification – Individuality of Handwriting, Natural Variations – Process of Comparison, Genuine and Forged Documents – Holographic Documents – Laminated Documents, Basic Tools needed for Forensic Documents Examination and their use – Video Spectral Comparator – Stereomicroscope– Electrostatic Detection Apparatus – Electrostatic Lifting Equipments
Forgeries and their Detection – Various types of Forgeries and their detection – Examination of Built Up Documents, Determination of Sequence of Strokes, Physical Matching of Documents – Identification of Writings – Examination of Signatures – Characteristics of Genuine and Forged Signatures – Examination of Alterations, Erasures, Over writings, Additions and Obliterations – Decipherment of Secret, Indented and Charred Documents – Examination of Seal Impressions and other Mechanical Impressions – Insertion of sheets in books, registers, answer sheets and their examination
Examination of Printed Matter in Documents and Security Documents – Xerox Copies, Carbon Copies, Fax Message Copies, Ink Jet, Dot Matrix, Laser Printer Copies and their Identification – Identification of Type Writings, Identification of Typist – Identification of Printed Matter, Various Types of Printing of Security Documents – Printing of Currency Notes, Examination of Counterfeit Currency Notes, Passports, Visas, Stamp Papers, Postal Stamps, etc. – Modern Instrumental Methods of Identification of Toners and Inks used for printing – Lifting by Heat Transfer – SEM-EDS. Determination of Age of Documents – Examination of Paper, Ink and Writings / Signatures etc. to Determine the Relative Age of the Documents and Writings – Use of Forensic Stylistics and Linguistics for Author Identification, Digital Documents, Digital Signatures
Fingerprints – History and Development of Fingerprints – Formation of Ridges, Poroscopy, Dactyloscopy, Types of fingerprints patterns, Pattern Areas – Classification of Fingerprints, Henry System of Classification, Single Digit Classification, Extension of Henry System – Fingerprint Bureau
Search of Fingerprints – Chance Fingerprints, Latent & Visible Fingerprints, Plastic Fingerprints – Composition of Sweat, Development of Latent Fingerprints, Conventional Methods of Development of Fingerprints: Fluorescent Method, Magnetic Powder Method, Fuming Method, Chemical Method etc. – Digital Imaging and Enhancement, Application of Laser and Other Radiations to Develop Latent Fingerprints, Metal Deposition Method and Development of Latent Print on Skin – Role of Fingerprint Expert at Crime Scene-Computerisation of Fingerprints – Taking of fingerprints from living and dead persons, preserving and lifting of fingerprints, photography of fingerprints, digital transmission, Computerisation of Fingerprints – Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) – Efficacy of Automated Identification Systems-Limitations-Case Studies.
Biometric Methods of Identification – Classical and Modern Methods, Fingerprints, Hand Geometry, Palm Vein Authentication, Retina Scan, Iris Scan, Facial Recognition, Signature Dynamics, Voice Recognition – Unique Identification System in India: Aadhaar Cards – Digital Fingerprints at point of sales- Legal Aspects-Case Studies.
Introduction to Forensic Biology, Genetics & DNA Fingerprinting - Introduction to Forensic Biology, Genetics and Serology – Human Genetic Variations – Mendelian Inheritance, Mutation and their types and causes – Relevance of population genetics. Allele Frequency, Genotype Frequency – Polymorphism and Heterozygosity – Measures of Genetic variations-Genetic Inheritance.
Human Blood Group Systems – History, biochemistry and genetics of ABO, Rh, Mn and other forensically significant blood group systems – Methods of ABO blood grouping (absorption-inhibition, mixed agglutination and absorption elution) from blood stains and other body fluids/stains. New approaches in bloodstain grouping – Blood group specific ABH substances. Secretors and non- secretors – Blood groups that make racial distinctions. HLA antigens and HLA typing – Role of sero-genetic markers in individualization and paternity disputes - Pitfalls in red cell typing
History & Development of DNA Fingerprinting – Structure and function of DNA, RNA and genome organization – Milestones in development of DNA technology – History of Forensic DNA Testing – Enzymes used in manipulation of nucleic acids – Probes – Genetic basis of Forensic DNA typing, Technological basis of Forensic DNA typing – Sample collection and preservation – DNA Extraction Methods – Quantification and Quality assessment methods – PCR Amplification – PCR process. PCR Primer designing – DNA separation methods: Slab gel and Capillary Electrophoresis –DNA detection methods: Fluorescent Dyes and Silver–staining
Modern Techniques of DNA Fingerprinting – Advantages of Modern DNA Fingerprinting – DNA Amplification– STR Profiling – Principles of mtDNA – DNA Sequencing Results and their interpretation - Analyzing and Interpreting STR Profiles - Probability Index and Allelic frequency - Commercial Kits for Human Identification
Applications of DNA Fingerprinting – Interpretation of DNA Typing Results – Introduction to Complicating Factors – Multiple Contributors, Degradation, Extraneous Substance – System Specific Interpretational Issues – Multibanded Patterns, Single Banded Patterns (RFLP) – Nuclear DNA, Mitochondrial DNA-Microbial DNA testing, Non-Human DNA testing, Plant DNA testing – STR allele nomenclature - Gender identification – Interpretation of the DNA typing results – RNA and its application in Forensics, Emerging molecular techniques in Forensics
DNA Database – Determination of Genetic Concordance – Evaluation of Results, Bays Theorem, Hardy Weinberg Law, Frequency Estimate Calculations, Population Sub Structure, Likelihood Rations – Introduction to Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics – DNA Databank, Certification Accreditation
Wildlife Forensics & Bioinformatics- Introduction and importance of Wild life. Protected and endangered species of animals and plants – Sanctuaries and their importance – Relevant provision of wild life and environmental act – Types of wildlife crimes – Different methods of killing and poaching of wildlife animals. Introduction to bioinformatics and its application in forensics – Integrated information retrieval – Major databases in bioinformatics – Sequence alignment, Phylogenetic analysis and related tools – Gene identification and prediction, Bioinformatics tools of forensic applications – Tools used in proteomics, In-silico simulation for molecular biology experiments – Basic theory of probability and statistics – Bayesian analysis – Likelihood ratio – Statistical evaluation of DNA profiles using Bioinformatics tools
Case Studies
Role of Forensic in Financial Frauds – Concept, Scope and Purpose – Elements of Fraud-Signs of Fraud, Looking for Suspects – Evaluating Fraud – Tips, Confronting Suspects – Differences between Audits and Investigations – Conducting a Fraud Investigation-Assessing the Engagement, Budgeting and Cost Control– Managing the Case: Importance of Credentials, Management and Supervision of Staff, Work Programs and Checklist, Document Management, Preserving Evidence, File Maintenance, Investigative Software, Professional Standards – Searching for Fraud: Analytical Review, Key Financial Ratios, Write–offs, Adjustments and Miscellaneous, Manual Disbursements.
Nature & Type of Frauds – Bank Frauds, Corporate Frauds, Cyber Frauds, Securities Frauds, Insurance Frauds, Consumer Frauds, Marketing Frauds, Accounting Frauds, Financial Statement Frauds, Case Studies, Red Flags – Early warning Signals. Looking for Frauds in little things – Sources of Information: Who Acquires Information, Internal Records, Private Records, Internet and Search Engines – Investigative Techniques: Corporate Background Checks, Individual Background Checks, Searching for Friends, Family and Associates, Surveillance, Digital Data Analysis, Computer Forensics, Interviewing Witnesses and Suspects, Confirmation with Customers and Vendors
Vulnerabilities for Fraud – Fraud Triangle, Fraud Circle, Scale of Fraud, Theories of Financial Fraud
Techniques of Forensic Audit & Legal Aspects– Techniques of Forensic Audit – General audit techniques – Technology based audits – Digital evidence – Data mining techniques – Use of software using statistical and mathematical tools – Location of evidence using technologies – Preparation of forensic audit report-Framework for Fraud Prevention, Deterrence and Effective Punishment – Organizations to combat fraud within India and outside-Case Studies.
Companies Act 2013, FEMA Act 1989, PML Act 2002, IT Act 2008, Indian Contract Act 1872, IPC 1860, IEA 1872, Cr. PC & CPC 1908, FCPA Act 1977 of USA, Fraud Act VI of UK, UN Convention against Corruption
Investigation of Financial Misappropriation and Accounting Frauds – Asset Misappropriation Scheme, Cash Receipts Schemes, Disbursement Schemes, Noncash Schemes – Investigation of Financial Statement Fraud: Revenue Overstatement, Channel Stuffing, Round-Tripping, Asset Overstatement, Liability and Expense Understatement, Reserve Manipulation, Misrepresentation or Omission of Information, Improper Recording of Mergers and Acquisitions, Off-Balance-Sheet Items.
Investigation of Corruption Schemes: Bribes, Kickbacks, Extortion and Conflict of Interest, Related Party Transactions, Money Laundering, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act – Prevention and Detection – Investigation of External Fraud Schemes: Corporate Espionage, Investment Schemes, Pyramid or Ponzi Schemes, Securities Fraud, Hidden Income or Assets – Insurance Fraud – Bankruptcy Fraud-Collection of evidence – Techniques of interviewing – Collection of data-Case Studies.

Course Coordinator

Associate Professor
Ph : +9140 – 23498213

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Administrative Contact

Ms. B. Nagalakshmi
Assistant Registrar
Ph : +9140 – 23498402

Ms. G. Usha Devi
Junior Assistant
Ph : +9140 – 23498404

Mr. B. Vijay Kumar
Record Assistant
Ph : +9140 – 23498404

Postal Address

Directorate of Distance Education
NALSAR University of Law
Justice City, Shameerpet, Medchal District,
Hyderabad - 500101, Telangana, India.
Ph : +9140 – 23498404;Fax: +91 40 23498403

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