2-YEAR M.A. (CRIMINAL LAW & FORENSIC SCIENCE)
SEMESTER - IV
2.4.11. FORENSIC MEDICINE
Introduction and Scope of Forensic Medicine – Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology – Terminology – Structure of the Body – Human Skeleton, Vital Systems of the Body: Circulatory, Digestive, Respiratory, Nervous, Endocrine, Excretory and Reproductive Systems, Body Tissues: Epithelia and Glands, Connective Tissues, Bone Tissue, Skin and its Appendages, Structure of Hair and Hair Follicle, Muscle and Nerves
Crime Scene Examination for investigation of dead – Preliminary Steps – Examination of the Scene of Crime – Examination of the Scene in Mass Disasters – Medico-Legal Aspect of Death – Causes of Different Modes of Death – Primary Modes of Death, Sudden Death, Trauma and Natural Diseases – Obscure Causes of Death – Negative Autopsies – Medical Terminology (examples with prefixes and suffixes) - Examination of Decomposed, Mutilated and Burnt Bodies – Asphyxial Death – Drowning, Starvation, Lightning, Hanging, Strangulation and Throttling
Identification of Living and Dead
Post-mortem Examination (Autopsy) – Dying Declaration – Death: Definition, Types: Somatic, Cellular and Brain Death, Sudden, Natural and Unnatural Death – External Examinations, Internal Examinations – Post-mortem Changes and their importance in Determination of Time after Death – Medico-Legal Aspects of Death
Medico-Legal Aspects of Wounds and Mechanical Asphyxial Deaths – Wounds: Lacerations, Incised Wounds, Chop Wound, Stab Wounds – Distinction among Wound, Injury, Fracture and Hurt
Classification of Injuries: Mechanical and Thermal, Cold, Electrical, Chemical and Radiation Injuries – Abrasions and Bruises – Firearm Injuries – Regional Injuries (Head, Skull, Brain, Facial, Throat, Spine, Chest, Limb) – Genital Injuries – Medico-Legal Aspects of Injuries – Burns Injuries – Traffic Injuries (Motor-Vehicular, Railway, Air-Craft) – Blast Injuries
Rape, Unnatural Sexual Offenses, Other Offenses [Incest, Tribadism (Lesbianism), Indecent Assault] – Guidelines of the Examination of the Accused in Rape – Medico-Legal Aspects of Rape Cases – Guidelines for the Examination of Rape Victim – Other Aspects of Medical Examination: Sexual Capacity of the Accused, Age Determination of the Victim – Abortion, Infanticide
Forensic Toxicology and Poisoning – Poisoning and their effects – Characteristics of Acute Chronic Poisoning – Role of Investigating Officer at the Scene of Poisoning – Diagnosis of Poisoning on living and dead – Chemical analysis of poisons and correlation with medical examination
2.4.12. CYBER FORENSICS
Basics of Computers – Overview and working of computers, Generation and Classification of computers, Basics of computer hardware and software, Computer memory and its classification, other peripherals devices and cards-System Architecture – Processor. Digital Architecture of CPU – Input Unit, Output Unit and Storage Unit. Types of Storage Media – Hard Drive, SSD, Optical Devices, Holographic Storage, Smart cards. File Systems- Types and components-Basics of Operating System – Introduction - Operating system and Function, Batch, Interactive, Time-sharing and Real-Time systems, Various Operating System. Basics of Networking – Basic Computer Network Components – Server, client, routers, shared printers and other peripherals, Network Interface Card. Network Devices – hubs, switches, routers, repeaters. Basic HTTP, World Wide Web, Web Browsers, Web Servers, Domain Names, URL and DNS. IP addressing – types and classes. Types of Networks – LAN, MAN and WAN. Working of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Overview of cloud computing.
Types of Cyber Crime – Overview Internal and External Attacks,. Cybercrimes against Individuals – E-mail spoofing and online frauds, Phishing and its forms, Spamming, Cyber-defamation, Cyberstalking, Cyber Bullying and harassment, Computer Sabotage, Pornographic offenses, Password Sniffing. Keyloggers and Screenloggers. Cyber Crimes against Women and Children.
Cybercrime against organization – Unauthorized access of computer, Password Sniffing, Denial-of-service (DOS) attack, Backdoors and Malwares and its types, E-mail Bombing, Salami Attack, Software Piracy, Industrial Espionage, Intruder attacks.
Security policies violations, Crimes related to Social Media, ATM, Online and Banking Frauds. Intellectual Property Frauds. Cyber Crimes against Women and Children.
Mobile Forensics – Mobile Forensic, Types of Evidence present in mobile phones - Files present in SIM card, phone memory dump, and evidences in memory card. Seizure and Preservation of mobile phones and PDA. Mobile phone evidence extraction process, Data Acquisition Methods – Physical, Logical and File System\Manual Acquisition. Good Forensic Practices, Mobile Forensic Investigation Toolkit. Tracking of mobile phone location. Analysis of mobile data like SMS, call logs, contacts, media files, recordings and important mobile application data (IM Chats like whatsapp, telegram, iMessage, Email clients, Calendar, Reminder and Note apps). Challenges to Mobile forensics. CDR and IPDR analysis.
Network Forensics – Monitoring of computer network and activities, Live Packet Capturing and Analysis. Searching and collection of evidences from the network. Network Intrusion Detection and Analysis. Event Log Aggregation – role of logs in forensic analysis, tools and techniques. Investigating network attacks. Evidence collection from Routers & CCTV DVRs. Forensic analysis of online browsing activity and related artifacts.
Cyber Crime Investigation - Introduction to Cyber Crime Investigation, Procedure for Search and seizure of digital evidences in cyber-crime incident. Forensics Investigation Process- Pre-search consideration, Acquisition, Duplication & Preservation of evidences, Examination and Analysis of evidences, Storing of Evidences, Documentation and Reporting, Maintaining the Chain of Custody. Data Acquisition of live system, Shutdown Systems and Remote systems, servers. E-mail Investigations, Password Cracking. Seizing and preserving mobile devices. Methods of data acquisition of evidence from mobile devices. Data Acquisition and Evidence Gathering from Social Media. Performing Data Acquisition of encrypted systems. Challenges and issues in cyber-crime investigation.
Analysis of Digital Evidences – Search and Seizure of Volatile and Non-volatile Digital Evidence, Imaging and Hashing of Digital Evidences, Introduction to Deleted File Recovery, Steganography and Steganalysis, Data Recovery Tools and Procedures, Duplication and Preservation of Digital Evidences, Recover Internet Usage Data, Recover Swap files/Temporary Files/Cache Files. Software and Hardware tools used in cyber-crime investigation – Open Source and Proprietary tools. Importance of Log Analysis in forensic analysis. Understanding Storage Formats for Digital Evidences – Raw Format, Proprietary Formats, Advanced Forensic Formats. Basics of various email clients like Outlook, Lotus Notes, Thunderbird, and forensically relevant files for the same (in both Windows and MacBook OS).
Introduction to Cloud Computing – Cloud Computing definition, private, public and hybrid cloud. Cloud types; IaaS, PaaS, SaaS. Benefits and challenges of cloud computing, public vs. private clouds, role of virtualization in enabling the cloud; Business Agility: Benefits and challenges to Cloud architecture. Application availability, performance, security and disaster recovery; next generation Cloud Applications.
Cybercrime and cloud computing, Different types of tools used in cybercrime, Password Cracking – Online attacks, Offline attacks, Remote attacks, Random Passwords, Strong and weak passwords. Viruses and its types. Ransomware and Cryptocurrencies. DoS and DDoS attacks and their types. Cybercriminal syndicates and nation state groups.
Cloud Security and Forensics – Analysis of Cases while deciding to adopt secure cloud computing architecture. Appropriate cloud requirements. Secure Cloud based service, Applications and development platform deployment so as to improve the total cost of ownership (TCO). Cloud Security Architecture, Identity and Access Management, Encryption and Key Management.
Data Collection, Live Forensics, Evidence Segregation, virtualized environments and proactive measures. Organizational Dimension- Internal staffing, External Dependency Chains, Service Level Agreement, Multiple Jurisdictions and Tenancy. Investigative tools in the virtualized environment. Analysis- correlation, reconstruction, time synchronization, logs, metadata, timelines. Cloud Forensic Challenges.
Introduction to Forensic Audio and Video Analysis – Principles of Forensic Audio and Video Analysis, Basics of Voice and Sound-analysis-speaker identification process-voice comparison and matching-Basics of Video and Image Analysis-Image Authentication and Image/object/personnel identification-Techniques used-Hardware and Software- Recovery of Evidence – Evidence Enhancement - Analysis, Interpretation and Identification – Authentication of recordings – Identifying people or objects on a recording
Why and when is audio-video evidence used – To Corroborate Statements – To Identify Suspects – How Forensic Audio and Video Analysis done – Audio and Video Evidence that may be analyzed – How the Evidence is collected – Digital video and audio – Analog video and audio – Who Conducts the Analysis – How the Analysis is performed – Video Enhancement Techniques – Audio Enhancement Techniques
Forensic Evidence Admissibility and Expert Witnesses
Case Studies of Digital Forensics and Audio-Video Forensics
Guidelines for Dissertation
The main objective of the dissertation component is to assess the research and writing skills of the candidates as well as to provide a platform for creative legal scholarship and can subsequently be refined and submitted for publication in scholarly journals or even serve as the basis for full-length thesis in doctoral programmes.
a) Selection of topic and submission of the proposal
The candidates are free to select their Dissertation Topic but it should be relevant to the field of Forensic Science.
For the purposes of finalization of the Dissertation Topics, the candidates are required to submit 1000 words Dissertation Proposal indicating the proposed Research Scheme.
Upon scrutinizing the Research Scheme, the Course-Coordinator will either approve or reject the proposal. In the event of rejection / modification of the proposed Research Scheme, the candidates will have to re-submit another Research Proposal incorporating the suggested changes within a stipulated time fixed by the Course-Coordinator.
b) Length and format of the Dissertation
The length of the dissertation should normally be between 80-100 pages and should include
- Cover Page
- Certificate signed by the Supervisor
- Declaration signed by the Student
- Table of Contents
- Index of Authorities (Statutes / Judgments / Other official sources)
- List of Abbreviations (if required)
- Methodology (Objectives – Scope and Limitations – Sources – Research Questions)
- Main body of dissertation (Divided down into Chapters or Parts)
- Bibliography (Books – Scholarly articles – Articles from news sources – Internet sources)
c) Submission of dissertation
The candidates are required to submit to the Supervisor a rough draft initially for his/her suggestions/modifications. After incorporating the suggestions/ modifications as suggested by the Supervisor, the candidate should submit two copies of the Dissertation before the deadline notified by the University from time to time.
Evaluation of Dissertation
The written Dissertation will carry a total of 150 marks which will be followed by a Viva-voce examination carrying 50 marks. Dissertation shall be evaluated by one examiner and if a student secures a minimum of 50% marks in the written report, he/she may be called for viva-voce examination. In total, a student should secure a minimum of 50% marks in the Dissertation including the written report and viva-voce examination.